Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology (APJO)
Online Submission and Review System


The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology (APJO) is the official publication of the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology. The APJO positions itself as a first-class bimonthly (6 issues per year) peer-viewed e-journal representative of ophthalmic and visual science developments in the Asia-Pacific region. The APJO welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts which describe clinical investigations, clinical observations and clinically relevant laboratory investigations.  



A submitted manuscript must be an original contribution not previously published (except as an abstract or preliminary report), must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere, and if accepted, must not be published elsewhere in similar form, in any language, without the consent of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Each person listed as an author is expected to have participated in the study to a significant extent. Although the editors and referees make every effort to ensure the validity of published manuscripts, the final responsibility rests with the authors, not with the Journal, its editors, or the publisher.


Patient anonymity and informed consent: it is the author’s responsibility to ensure that a patient’s anonymity be carefully protected and to verify that any experimental investigation with human subjects reported in the manuscript was performed with informed consent and following all the guidelines for experimental investigation with human subjects required by the institution(s) with which all the authors are affiliated. Authors should mask patients’ eyes and remove patients’ names from figures unless they obtain written consent from the patients and submit written consent with the manuscript.


Copyright: All authors must sign a copy of the journal's “Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure, and Copyright Transfer” and submit it with the original manuscript.


Conflicts of Interest: Authors must state all possible conflicts of interest in the manuscript, including financial, consultant, institutional and other relationships that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. If there is no conflict of interest, this should also be explicitly stated as none declared. All sources of funding should be acknowledged in the manuscript. All relevant conflicts of interest and sources of funding should be included on the title page of the manuscript with the heading “Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding:”. For example:


Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: A has received honoraria from Company Z. B is currently receiving a grant (#12345) from Organization Y, and is on the speaker’s bureau for Organization X – the CME organizers for Company A. For the remaining authors none were declared.


In addition, each author must complete and submit the journal’s copyright transfer agreement, which includes a section on the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest based on the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical journal Editors, “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” ( The form is readily available on the manuscripts submission page and can be completed and submitted electronically. Please note that authors may sign the copyright transfer and disclosure form using a digital signature. For additional information about creating a digital signature and electronically signing this form, please go to


Alteration to authorship: Any change in authors after initial submission must be approved by all authors. This applies to additions, deletions, change in the order of authorship or contributions being attributed differently. Any alterations must be explained to the Editor. The Editor may contact any of the authors and/or contributors to ascertain whether they have agreed to any alteration.


Contributions should be acknowledged: All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance or a department chair who provided only general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under a heading such as “clinical investigators” or “participating investigators”, and their function of contribution should be described clearly – for example, “served as scientific advisors”, “critically reviewed the study proposals”, “collected data” or “provided and cared for study patients”.


As readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, all persons must give written permission to be acknowledged. All acknowledgements should be listed in the cover letter and must also be included at the end of your manuscript file.


Compliance with NIH and Other Research Funding Agency Accessibility Requirements

A number of research funding agencies now require or request authors to submit the post-print (the article after peer review and acceptance but not the final published article) to a repository that is accessible online by all without charge. As a service to our authors, LWW will identify to the National library of Medicine (NLM) articles requiring deposit and will transmit the post-print of an article based on research funded in whole or in part by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, or other funding agencies to PubMed Central. The Copyright Transfer and Disclosure form provides the mechanism for identifying such papers.


Institutional Review Board / Ethics Committee Approval (IRB): If the study being reported involved human subjects, human derived materials, or human medical records, please include one of the two following statements in the Materials and Methods section: Institutional Review Board (IRB)/Ethics Committee approval was obtained OR IRB/Ethics Committee ruled that approval was not required for this study.


Declaration of Helsinki: A statement is required that described research adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.


Clinical Trial Registration: A statement should be provided in the Material and Methods section of the manuscript that this was done and where the registration information is publicly available.


Cancer Classification Scheme:  Authors are encouraged to use the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM Classification scheme when describing patients with ophthalmic malignancies (American Joint commission on Cancer. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2009). This classification scheme can also be found at .  


Permissions: Authors must submit written permission from the copyright owner (usually the publisher) to use direct quotations, tables or illustrations that have appeared in copyrighted form elsewhere, along with complete details about the source. Any permission fees that might be required by the copyright owner are the responsibility of the authors requesting use of the borrowed material, not the responsibility of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, the journal or the Editorial Office.


All manuscripts must be submitted online at


First-time users: Please click the Register button on the Editorial Manager home page and enter the requested information. Upon successful registration, you will be sent an email indicating your user name and password. Print a copy of this information for future reference. Note: If you have received an email from us with an assigned user ID and password, or if you are a repeat user, do not register again. Simply log in using the information for your existing account. Once you have an assigned ID and password, re-registration is unnecessary, even if your role changes (that is, author, reviewer or editor).


Authors:  Please click the login button from the menu at the top of the page and log into the system as an Author. Submit your manuscript according to the author instructions. You will be able to track the progress of your manuscript through the system. If you experience any problems, please contact the Managing Editor, Florence Chung, at or by phone at (+852) 2762-3129.


Authors without internet access, see Preparation of Manuscript  instructions below.


Original Articles: All full-length articles will receive at least two editorial peer reviews. Both clinical and basic science articles are welcome. Authors are encouraged to limit their paper length to 18 double-spaced typewritten pages.


Review Articles: All review articles will receive at least two editorial peer reviews. Review articles on recently hot topics are most welcome. Authors are encouraged to limit their paper length to 26 double-spaced typewritten pages.


Annual Reviews (by invitation only):  All annual reviews will receive at least two editorial peer reviews. Annual reviews are reviews of the literature for 12 months prior to the time of submission on a particular subject matter. Authors are encouraged to limit their paper length to 80 double-spaced typewritten pages and to provide a structured abstract with the following subheads: Purpose, Design, Methods, Results and Conclusion.


Editorials (by invitation only): Editorials provide a forum for interpretive, analytical or reflective opinions related to manuscripts in the APJO or statements about clinical, scientific or socioeconomic issues. It should be objective and dispassionate, but is likely to provide alternative points of view and some bias. Editorials should be limited to 1200 words with no more than 15 references. In general, the use of figures and tables is not encouraged. It is expected that authors of the Editorials will not have any significant financial interest in a company (or its competitor) that makes a product discussed in the article. Funding and financial disclosure is required in the Acknowledgment before the references. Editorials do not have an Abstract.


Perspectives:  All perspectives will receive at least two editorial peer reviews. They should contain personal viewpoints on topics with broad interests and function like mini-editorials that review the evidence supporting the use of a current technique, procedure, therapy and clinical approach. They can also review new technologies, critical issues, health care systems and teaching models in the Asia-Pacific region. Perspectives should not be a review article.



Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.


For authors without internet access only:

General format: Submit manuscripts in English in triplicate (one original and two copies) and printed on standard 8½ x 11-inch (21 x 28-cm) paper with at least a 1-inch (2.5 cm) margin on all sides. Double space all copy, including legends, footnotes, tables and references, and print on one side of the sheet only. If a manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors must then submit the final, accepted version of the manuscript on disk.


For all authors

Cover Letter: Inform the Editor-in-Chief of any special considerations regarding your submission, including about not limited to (1) Details of related papers published or submitted for publication, Copies of related papers should be submitted as “Supplementary files not for review” to help the Editor decide how to handle the matter. (2) Details of previous reviews of the submitted article. The previous Editor’s and reviewers’ comments should be submitted as Supplementary material along with your responses to those comments. Editors encourage authors to submit these previous communications – doing so may expedite the review process.


Title page: Include on the title page (a) complete manuscript title; (b) authors’ full names, highest academic degrees, and affiliations; (c) name and address for correspondence, including fax number, telephone number and email address; (d) address for reprints  if different from that of corresponding author; and (e) sources of support that require acknowledgement.


Structured abstract and key words: Provide a structured abstract limited to 250 words on a separate page. Do not cite references in the abstract. Limit the use of abbreviations and acronyms. Use the following subheads for original articles: Purpose, Design, Methods, Results and Conclusion. List three to five keywords, Manuscripts without a structured abstract will be returned to the author.


Review articles should emphasize new developments and areas of controversy in clinical or laboratory ophthalmology. An unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words should be submitted on a separate page.


Manuscripts describing experimental investigations or procedures on humans must include a statement in the “Methods” section, declaring that prior approval from an institutional review board has been granted, and that informed consents have been obtained from each patient.


Organizing Text: Number the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the introduction as page 1. The text of an original article should not exceed 4,000 words with up to 8 images and tables and 50 references while that of a review article should not exceed 6,000 words with up to 8 images and tables and 100 references. The text of an annual review should not exceed 15,000 words with up to 200 references.


The texts should contain concise internal headings in outline format (I, A, 1, a, etc.). Tables and figures should be cited by number.


Both original and review articles are subject to peer review and editorial approval. Editors may request authors to shorten a submitted manuscript when, in the opinion of the Editorial Board, the content does not justify the length.


Text: Organize the manuscript into four main headings: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. Define abbreviations at first mention in the text and in each table and figure. If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer’s name and address (city and state/country). Acknowledge all forms of support, including pharmaceutical and industry support, in the “Acknowledgements” section.


Abbreviations: While the following abbreviations are acceptable without any further clarification needed at any point in the text (not even first use) and they are also acceptable in titles, others are not:

        AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome

        cDNA copy deoxyribonucleic acid

        CNS central nervous system

        DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

        HLA human leukocyte antigen

        IM intramuscular(ly)

        LASIK laser in situ keratomileusis

        mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid

        RNA ribonucleic acid


For a list of standard abbreviations, consult the Council of Biology Editors Style Guide (available from the Council of Science Editors, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814) or other standard sources. Write out the full term for each abbreviation at its first use unless it is a standard unit of measure.


References: The authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Key the references (double-spaced) at the end of the manuscript. Cite the references in text in the order of appearance. Cite unpublished data, such as papers submitted but not yet accepted for publication or personal communications, in parentheses in the text. If there are more than three authors, name only the first three authors and then use et al. Refer to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus for abbreviations of journal names, or access the list at Sample references are given below:


Journal article

1.  Boisjoly HM, Bernard PM, Dube I, et al. Effects of factors unrelated to tissue matching on corneal transplant endothelial rejection. Am J Ophthalmol 1989; 107: 647-54.


Book chapter

2.    Skuta GL, Organ RK. Corticosteriod-induced glaucoma. In: Ritch R, Shields MB, Krupin T, edsThe Glaucomas. St Louis: Mosby; 1996:1177-1188.


Entire book

3.     Gelatt KN, ed. Veterinary Ophthalmology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.



4.     Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1194.


Online journals

5.   Friedman SA. Preeclampsia: a review of the role of prostaglandins. Obstet Gynecol [serial online]. January 1988; 71:22-37. Available from: BRS Information Technologies, McLean, VA. Accessed December 15, 1980.



6.    CANCERNET-PDQ [database online]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. Updated March 19, 1996.


World Wide Web

7. Gostin LO. Drug use and HIV/AIDS [JAMA HIV/AIDS web site]. June 1, 1996. Available at: Accessed June 16, 1997.

Only papers published or in press should be included in the reference list. (Personal communications or unpublished data must be cited in parentheses in the text with the name(s) of the source(s) and the year. Authors should get permission from the source to cite unpublished data.)


Figures: Digital art should be created / scanned and saved and submitted as either TIFF (tagged image file format) or EPS (encapsulated postscript) files. PPT (Power Point) files will also be accepted. Electronic photographs – radiographs, CT scans, and so on – and scanned images must have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art must have a resolution of at least 1200 dpi. If fonts are used in the artwork, they must be converted to paths or outlines or they must be embedded in the files. Color images must be created / scanned and saved and submitted as CMYK files. If you do not have the capability to create CMYK files, please disregard this step. Indicate in your cover letter or the Comments step that you are unable to produce CMYK files. Cite figures consecutively in the text, and number them in the order in which they are discussed.


Detailed Figure Instructions: For a step by step guide for submitting Digital Art, please see 5 Steps to Creating Digital Artwork (PDF).


Figure legends: Legends must be submitted for all figures. They should be brief and specific, and they should appear on a separate manuscript page after the references. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs, and indicate the type of stain used. Legends for previously published figures must acknowledge original source (author’s and publisher’s written permission to reprint must be enclosed).


Supplemental Digital Content (SDC): Authors may submit SDC to LWW journals that enhance their articles’ text to be considered for online posting via Editorial Manager. SDC may include standard media such as text documents, graphs, audio, video, etc. On the Attach Files page of the submission process, please select Supplemental Audio, Video or Data for your uploaded file as the Submission Item. If an article with SDC is accepted, our production staff will create a URL with the SDC file. The URL will be placed in the call-out within the article. SDC files are not copy-edited by LWW staff, they will be presented digitally as submitted.


SDC Call-outs: Supplemental Digital Content must be cited consecutively in the text of the submitted manuscript. Citations should include the type of material submitted (Audio, Figure, Table, etc.), be clearly labeled as “Supplemental Digital Content,” include the sequential list number, and provide a description of the supplemental content. All descriptive text should be included in the call-out as it will not appear elsewhere in the article.


List of Supplemental Digital Content: A listing of Supplemental Digital Content must be submitted at the end of the manuscript file. Include the SDC number and file type of the Supplemental Digital Content. This text will be removed by our production staff and not be published.

Example: Supplemental Digital Content 1.wmv


SDC File Requirements: All acceptable file types are permissible up to 10MBs. For audio or video files greater than 10MBs. Authors should first query the journal office for approval. For a list of all available file types and detailed instructions, please visit


Tables: Cite tables consecutively in the text and number them in that order. Key each on a separate sheet, and include the table title, appropriate column heads, and explanatory legends (including definitions or any abbreviations used). Do not embed tables within the body of the manuscript. They should be self-explanatory and should supplement, rather than duplicate, the material in the text.


Style: Pattern manuscript style after American Medical Association Manual of Style (9th edition). Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (27theditor) and Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition) should be used as standard references. Refer to drugs and therapeutic agents by their accepted generic or chemical names, and do not abbreviate them. Use code numbers only when a generic name is not yet available. In that case, supply the chemical name and a figure giving the chemical structure of the drug. Capitalize the trade names of drugs and place them in parentheses after the generic names. To comply with trademark law, include the name and location (city and state in the US; city and country outside the US) of the manufacturer of any drug, supple or equipment mentioned in the manuscript. Use the metric system to express units of measure and degrees Celsius to express temperatures, and use SI units rather than conventional units. A complete style guide can be found on the Journal’s Editorial Manager home page, at


Address for manuscript submission (For authors without internet access): Send the manuscript with a cover letter that includes the corresponding author’s email address to the Editor-in-Chief, Dennis SC Lam, MD, University Eye Clinic, 3/F, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, 147K Argyle Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Office: (852) 2762-3129, Fax: (852) 2715-9490; Email: (please see the checklist at the end of these Instructions before mailing manuscripts). The editorial office will acknowledge receipt of your manuscript and will give you a manuscript number for reference. Address all inquiries regarding manuscripts not yet accepted or published to the Journal’s editorial office.



Disk submission (for authors without internet access): Authors must submit an electronic version of the final accepted manuscript along with a printout of the final accepted manuscript. Electronic files should be submitted in a standard word processing format; Microsoft Word (or Corel WordPerfect) is preferred. Although conversions can be made from other word processing formats, the vagaries of the conversion process may introduce errors. Do not submit ASCII text files. Do not use automatic numbering or footnotes for references. The Journal does not assume responsibility for errors in the conversion of customized software, newly released software, and special characters. Authors preparing manuscripts on Macintosh computers should not use the Fast Save option. Each submitted disk must be clearly labeled with the name of the author, item title, journal title, word processing program and version, and file name used. The disk should contain only one file – the final version of the accepted manuscript.


Page proofs and corrections: Corresponding authors will receive electronic page proofs to check the copyedited and typeset article before publication. Portable document format (PDF) files of the typeset pages and support documents (e.g. reprint order form ) will be sent to the corresponding author by email. Complete instructions will be provided with the email for downloading and printing the files and for faxing the corrected page proofs. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that there are no errors in the proofs. Changes that are stylistic or are a reworking of previously accepted material will be disallowed. The publisher reserves the right to deny any changes that do not affect the accuracy of the content. Authors may be charged for alterations to the proofs beyond those required to correct errors or to answer queries. Proofs must be checked carefully and corrections faxed within 24 to 48 hours of receipt, as requested in the cover letter accompanying the page proofs.


Authors of the Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology shall incur no publishing cost as the publishing fees are covered by the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology. 


Reprints:  Authors will receive a reprint order form and a price list with the page proofs. Reprint requests should be faxed with the corrected proofs, if possible. Reprints are normally shipped 6 to 8 weeks after publication of the issue in which the item appears. Contact the Reprint Department, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 351W. Camden Street, Baltimore, MD 21201; Fax: 410.528.4434; Email: with any questions.


Publisher’s contact: Fax corrected page proofs, reprint order form, and any other related materials to Journal Production Editor, Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, 215.405.3961. Color proofs should be returned to Erin Langenfeld, Journal Production Editor, Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 351W. Camden Street, Baltimore MD 21201.  


Manuscript checklist (for authors submitting via Editorial Manager)

  • Cover letter
  • Title page – include a list of all authors and their affiliations, all disclosures relevant to the manuscript, and the corresponding authors’ complete contact information
  • Corresponding author designated in cover letter and on title page (include email address, mailing address, and phone/fax numbers)
  • Acknowledgments listed for grants and technical support
  • Complete manuscript (includes title, abstract, keywords, ms text, references, and all figure and table legends) submitted as a Word document (.DOC) or other word processor document
  • References double-spaced in AMA style
  • Figures submitted as .TIFF, .EPS, .PPT or .PDF files (no .DOC, .XLS, .JPEG, or .BMP files will be accepted)
  • Permission to reproduce copyrighted materials and/or signed patient consent forms
  • A completed, signed Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure, and Copyright Transfer form from each author.

Manuscript checklist (for authors without internet access only)

  • Three copies of complete manuscript (includes title, abstract, keywords, ms text, references, and all figure and table legends)
  • Three sets of clearly labeled figures
  • Cover letter
  • Title page – include a list of all authors and their affiliations, all disclosures relevant to the manuscript, and the corresponding authors’ complete contact information
  • Abstract
  • References double-spaced in AMA style
  • Corresponding author designated in cover letter and on title page (include email address, mailing address, and phone/fax numbers)
  • Permission to reproduce copyrighted materials and/or signed patient consent forms
  • Acknowledgments listed for grants and technical support
  • Materials packed in extra-strength envelope
  • A completed, signed Authorship Responsibility, Financial Disclosure, and Copyright Transfer form from each author; the form can be supplied to authors without internet access by special request to the editorial office.
  • Disk and high-quality print of electronic art
  • Disk containing final version of manuscript after acceptance by editorial office